Unresolved questions include the detailed molecular uptake mechanism(s), reasons for cell toxicity, and the delivery efficiency of CPPs for different cargoes.
Here, we give a review focused on uptake mechanisms used by CPPs for membrane translocation and certain experimental factors that affect the mechanism(s).
MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China E-mail: [email protected]: 86-571-87951108 The chain length of ligands plays an important role in many biomedical applications.
Yet the interaction of nanoparticles with surface-capped ligands of different length (especial the hydrophobic chains) and cells is neglected, and thereby the underlying mechanism influencing cellular uptake is unclear.
Whereas the total amount of adsorbed serum proteins had no significant difference, the relative amounts of adhesion mediators especially vitronectin (Vn) depended on the alkyl length significantly.Our results suggest that cellular uptake of nanoparticles is sensitive to the way cells are positioned and sedimentation need to be considered when performing .All these studies of applications and toxicity rely on our ability to quantify the interactions between nanoparticles and cells, including their uptake by cells.Poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) (PACA) nanoparticles have shown promise as drug carriers both to solid tumors and across the blood–brain barrier.Efficient drug delivery requires both high cellular uptake of the nanoparticles and release of the drug from the nanoparticles.